June 2020,Current Affairs Test Answers

1.Ans b

The festival is being celebrated in Odisha. Why and when is it celebrated? This is a three-day-long festival dedicated to Mother Earth (Bhuma Devi) and womanhood at large. The festivities begin a day before Mithuna Sankranti and conclude two days after that. How is it celebrated? The first day of the festival is called Pahili Raja, the second is Mithuna Sankranti and the third Bhu daha or Basi Raja. The preparation begins one day before Pahili Raja, and it is called Sajabaja. Primarily, it is a time for the unmarried girls to prepare for their matrimony

This festival is also associated with the end of the summer season and the arrival of the monsoon. And therefore, it is also associated with agriculture and cultivation related communities and activities. 

2.Ans b

About Talamaddale: It is an ancient form of performance dialogue or debate performance in Southern India in the Karavali and Malnad regions of Karnataka and Kerala. The plot and content of the conversation is drawn from popular mythology but the performance mainly consists of an impromptu debate between characters involving sarcasm, puns, philosophy positions and humour. How is it different from Yakshagana? Unlike the Yakshagana performance, in the conventional ‘talamaddale,’ the artists sit across in a place without any costumes and engage in testing their oratory skills based on the episode chosen. If music is common for both Yakshagana performance and ‘talamaddale’, the latter has only spoken word without any dance or costumes. Hence it is an art form minus dance, costumes and stage conventions.


3.Ans d

Keeladi excavations The Context: Skeletal remains of a child excavated as part of Keeladi’s 6th phase excavation. The skeleton was found buried between two terracotta urns. All about Keeladi excavations: 1. Excavations in Keeladi prove that an urban civilisation existed in Tamil Nadu in the Sangam era on the banks of the river Vaigai.


4.Ans b

Why in News? Assam Chief Minister has ordered the arrest of a Kolkata-based political commentator, Garga Chatterjee, who had described Chaolung Sukapha as a “Chinese invader”. 

He was a 13th-century ruler who founded the Ahom kingdom that ruled Assam for six centuries. Contemporary scholars trace his roots to Burma. • He is widely referred to as the architect of “Bor Asom” or “greater Assam”.

5.Ans a


Some facts: 1. In 1895, Lal started the Punjab National Bank—the first Indian bank to begin solely with Indian capital, and that continues to function till date. 2. In 1917, Lal founded the Indian Home Rule League of America there. 3. In 1884, Tilak founded the Deccan Education Society in Pune, and under the banner, opened the New English School for primary studies and Fergusson College for higher education. 4. Bipin Chandra Pal was of a strong opinion that a mass reliance on Swadeshi goods would help people get rid of their poverty

6.Ans c

Sub- categorisation: National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) proposed the sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) back in 2015. In October 2017, President Ram Nath Kovind, in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 340 of the Constitution, appointed a commission to examine the issue of sub-categorisation of OBCs, chaired by retired Justice G. Rohini, to ensure social justice in an efficient manner by prioritising the Extremely Backward Classes (EBCs). 


7.Ans a

Highlights: 1. Brazil recorded a lightning strike that travelled a distance of 709 kilometres in 2018. 2. The previous record for the longest detected distance for a single lightning flash was for 321 km on June 20, 2007, across the US state of Oklahoma. 3. Brazil has the highest incidence of lightning in the world — an average of 77.8 million strikes per year. 4. Argentina recorded a strike that lasted for 16.73 seconds in 2019. 5. The previous record was a single lightning flash that lasted continuously for 7.74 seconds on August 30, 2012 over Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, France. 6. The lightning flashes that have now entered the record books are known as ‘Megaflashes’ in scientific parlance. 


8.Ans c

Researchers from GNS Science in New Zealand have announced that they mapped the shape and size of the Zealandia continent in unprecedented detail. Background: Scientists confirmed the existence of an eighth continent, called Zealandia, under New Zealand and the surrounding ocean in 2017. Because 94% of Zealandia’s 2 million square miles are underwater, mapping the continent is challenging. Latest findings: 1. Zealandia’s area is nearly 2 million square miles (5 million square kilometers) — about half the size of Australia. 2. But only 6% of the continent is above sea level. That part underpins New Zealand’s north and south islands and the island of New Caledonia. 3. Latest map depicts coastlines, territorial limits, and the names of major undersea features. The map is part of a global initiative to map the planet’s entire ocean floor by 2030.


9.Ans d


Gondwana formed when Earth’s ancient supercontinent, Pangea, split into two fragments. • Laurasia in the north became Europe, Asia, and North America. • Gondwana in the south dispersed to form modernday Africa, Antarctica, South America, and Australia. Further, Geologic forces continued to rearrange these land masses, and Zealandia was forced under the waves about 30 million to 50 million years after it broke off Gondwana as the largest tectonic plate — the Pacific Plate — slowly subducted beneath it. 


10.Ans b

As per Article 1 in the Constitution, the territory of India shall consist of: The territories of the states, The Union territories and Any territory that may be acquired.


11.Ans c

What is the anti-defection law? 

The Tenth Schedule was inserted in the Constitution in 1985 by the 52nd Amendment Act. 1. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds of defection by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House. 2. The decision on question as to disqualification on ground of defection is referred to the Chairman or the Speaker of such House, and his decision is final. The law applies to both Parliament and state assemblies.


12.Ans:b only 4th statement is incorrect.


Disqualification: If a member of a house belonging to a political party: 1. Voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party, or 2. Votes, or does not vote in the legislature, contrary to the directions of his political party. However, if the member has taken prior permission, or is condoned by the party within 15 days from such voting or abstention, the member shall not be disqualified. 3. If an independent candidate joins a political party after the election. 4. If a nominated member joins a party six months after he becomes a member of the legislature. Exceptions under the law: Legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances. • The law allows a party to merge with or into another party provided that at least two-thirds of its legislators are in favour of the merger. • In such a scenario, neither the members who decide to merge, nor the ones who stay with the original party will face disqualification. 




13.Ans b

 Dinesh Goswami Committee on electoral reforms: Disqualification should be limited to following cases: A member voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party A member abstains from voting, or votes contrary to the party whip in a motion of vote of confidence or motion of no-confidence. Political parties could issue whips only when the government was in danger. 


14.Ans b

Covaxin: • It is India’s first COVID vaccine candidate approved by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI). • Covaxin is an inactivated vaccine created from a strain of the infectious SARS COV-2 virus. • It is the first vaccine that has got approval of the drug controller for phase 1 and II human clinical trials. • The vaccine has been developed by Hyderabad Major Bharat Biotech in collaboration with ICMR and the National Institute of Virology (NIV). The company is also involved in the development of CoroFlu, a nasal vaccine for COVID-19, as part of an international collaboration of virologists at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and vaccine firm FluGen.


15.Ans c

Gynandromorphs: They are chimeric individuals having both male and female tissues, and are viewed by the scientific community as a genetic aberration. It is common in some arthropod taxa such as Crustacea and Arachnida. Why in News? Researchers have Gynandromorphism in the Libellulid Dragonfly Crocothemis Servilia from India. 


16.Ans b .It is vulnerable

Why in News? The Odisha Government has started a two-year conservation project for Fishing Cats in Bhitarkanika National Park. Key facts: The fishing cat is nocturnal (active at night). State animal of West Bengal.

Habitats: In India, fishing cats are mainly found in the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans, on the foothills of the Himalayas along the Ganga and Brahmaputra river valleys and in the Western Ghats. Protection: 1. Vulnerable — IUCN Red List. 2. CITES: Appendix II 3. Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Schedule I. Fishing Cat Project, launched in 2010 started raising awareness about the Cat in West Bengal.


17.Ans d


Sankalp Parva: Ministry of Culture is celebrating the “Sankalp Parva” from 28th June to 12 July 2020. This initiative has been launched following the call of Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi to plant at least five trees either in Office campus or wherever it is possible in order to ensure clean and healthy environment of the country. Ministry of Culture has recommended planting 5 tress: Bargad, Awla, Pepal, Ashok and Bel. These 5 trees represent the herbal heritage of the country.


18.Ans b .It was repaired indigenously in India

Maareech: It is an advanced anti-torpedo decoy system that is capable of being fired from all frontline ships. • It was recently inducted by the Indian Navy. • Designed and developed indigenously by the Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO). • It is capable of detecting, locating and neutralizing incoming torpedo. 


19. Ans b

World’s first yoga university outside India has been launched in Los Angeles: It is named Vivekananda Yoga University (VaYU). • VaYU will offer online graduate programmes based on scientific principles and modern research approaches to yoga. • Eminent Indian yoga guru Dr. H R Nagendra, Chancellor of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (SVYASA) is the first Chairman of VaYU. 


20.Ans a

What is the Order of the Nine Angles? O9A is considered to be a satanic, anarchist group founded in the UK in the 1970s that now operates around the world, including in the US. The group describes itself as “a diverse, and world-wide, collective of diverse groups, tribes, and individuals, who share and who pursue similar sinister, subversive, interests, aims and life-styles, and who cooperate when necessary for their mutual benefit and in pursuit of their shared aims and objectives…” Why in News? A US Army private has confessed to plotting an attack on his own unit by sharing secret information with this obscure satanic neo-Nazi group.


21.Ans b

Shwe oil & gas project in Myanmar: CCEA has approved additional investment of US$ 121.27 million by ONGC Videsh Ltd (OVL) towards further development of Shwe oil & gas project in Myanmar. • ONGC Videsh (OVL) has been associated with exploration and development of Shwe gas project in Myanmar since 2002. Significance: The participation of Indian PSUs in oil & gas exploration and development projects in neighbouring countries is aligned with India’s Act East Policy, and also part of India’s strategy to develop Energy Bridges with its neighbours in addition to further strengthening India’s energy security needs. 


22.Ans d

Ashadhi Bij, the Kutchi New Year: • Ashadhi Bij/Beej is the 2nd day of Shukla paksha of Ashadha month of the Hindu calendar (June – July). • The Kutchi people of Gujarat celebrate their Kutchi New Year on this day. • This day is associated with the beginning of rains in Kutch, Gujarat.


23.Ans a

Gaia hypothesis: Gaia hypothesis put forth by James Lovelock is an ecological theory proposing that living creatures and the physical world are in a complex interacting system that maintains equilibrium. 


24.Ans a

YUKTI 2.0: It is an initiative to help systematically assimilate technologies having commercial potential and information related to incubated startups in our higher education institutions. YUKTI stands for Young India combating COVID with Knowledge, Technology and Innovation. Ministry of HRD prepared the portal in view of Coronavirus. • Through this portal, the Ministry of Human Resource Development will endeavor to ensure that students, teachers and researchers in higher educational institutions are getting appropriate support to meet the requirements needed to advance their technologies and innovations.


25.Macaws: Context: Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) has busted a wildlife smuggling syndicate with seizure of a consignment of exotic macaws which had been smuggled from Bangladesh to Kolkata. • The birds were identified as Hyacinth Macaw, Pesquet’s Parrot, Severe Macaw and Hahn’s Macaw. • All the birds were seized under provisions of the Customs Act and Wild Life Protection Act, 1972. Offences under these laws are punishable with a sentence of up to seven years of imprisonment. Protection status: They are all protected species under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), with Hyacinth Macaw being accorded the highest protection and listed under Appendix I. Protection under CITES implies ban in global and domestic trade of the species.


26.Ans a

Swabhiman Anchal: • Swabhiman Anchal, formerly known as Cut-off area, in Malkangiri district of Odisha has been a Maoist stronghold.

• The area was covered by water from three sides and inhospitable terrain by another. It had long been a stronghold of naxalites. • The Maoists from Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh used to slip into Swabhiman Anchal to take refuge. Why in News? The Odisha police has been strengthening security infrastructure in the area.


27.Ans c

Golden Langur

Schedule I species in the Wildlife Protection Act (1972). • CITES Appendix I. • Endangered in IUCN Red List.

Habitat: semi evergreen and mixed deciduous forests. • Found in Small regions of western Assam and in the neighbouring foothills of the black mountains of Bhutan. 


28.Ans d

SATYABHAMA portal: • Launched by Ministry of Mines. • SATYABHAMA stands for Science and Technology Yojana for Aatmanirbhar Bharat in Mining Advancement. • Designed, developed and implemented by National Informatics Centre (NIC), Mines Informatics Division. • It allows online submission of project proposals along with monitoring of the projects and utilization of funds / grants. The researchers can also submit progress reports and Final Technical Reports of the projects in the electronic format in the portal. 


29.Ans b

Pangolin: Why in News? China has accorded the pangolin the highest level of protection and removed the scales of the endangered mammal from its list of approved traditional medicines. Key facts: Pangolin is only scaly mammal on the planet. According to CITES, it is also the most illegally traded vertebrate within its class (Mammalia). Of the eight species of pangolin worldwide, two are found in India. They are Chinese pangolin, mostly found in northeast India and Indian pangolin. Protection Status: 1. Chinese pangolin has been listed as “critically endangered”. 2. Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) has been listed as “endangered”.



1. Kuari Pass (Uttrakhand): This trek was explored by Lord Curzon and is also knows as the Curzon trail. 2. Brahma Taal (Uttrakhand): It is a hidden and secluded lake amidst the ridge, where Lord Brahma meditated according to the mythology. 3. Fotoksar is a picturesque village in Ladakh. It is the part of the Lingshed- Padum trek (also known as The Great Zanskar trek). 4. Roopkhund (Uttarakhand): It is a high altitude glacial lake. It lies in the lap of Trishul massif.


31.Ans a

PK Mohanty panel: Constituted by RBI. To review guidelines of ownership of private sector banks. Terms of reference: 1. examine the existing regulation and guidelines on ownership of private sector banks. 2. suggest appropriate norms to address the issue of concentration of control and ownership of banks. 3. review the eligibility criteria of the individuals to apply for banking license.


32.Ans c

Monkey Park in Karnataka:

• The state government is planning to establish a monkey park on the uninhabited islands in the Sharavathi

backwaters region.

• Need for: The idea came up following a spike in the cases of monkeys raiding agricultural and plantation

crops in Malnad region in recent times and several protests by farmers.

• As a solution to the menace, the State government took a decision to establish the park and in the 2020-

21 budget, ₹6.25 crore was allocated for the purpose.

In Himachal Pradesh, there are state-of-the-art monkey sterilisation and rehabilitation centres to address the

monkey menace.


33.Ans: c

Lonar lake: Team Of Scientists To Examine Why Maharashtra’s Lonar Lake Has Turned Pink. Some experts have attributed it to the salinity and presence of algae in the water body. Key facts: • Lonar crater lake was identified as a unique geographical site by a British officer named CJE Alexander in 1823. • It is an ancient circular lake created by a meteorite strike in Maharashtra. • Lonar crater became a geo-heritage site in 1979. • It is relatively young geologically, at just 50,000 years old. • Lonar Lake lies within the only known extraterrestrial impact crater found within the great Deccan Traps, a huge basaltic formation in India (Source:Wikipedia)


34.Ans b

Athirappilly hydroelectric project: Context: The Kerala government has issued a fresh no-objection certificate (NOC) for the state electricity board to proceed with the implementation of the proposed Athirapally hydro-electric project, which had been shelved several times in the past due to protests by green activists. Key facts: • The project will have an installed capacity of 163 mw. • Under the project, a dam is proposed to be constructed on the Chalakudy River. • The Chalakudy River is a tributary of the Periyar River and originates in the Anamalai region of Tamil Nadu


35.Ans a

Daulat Beg Oldie: • DBO is the northernmost corner of Indian territory in Ladakh, in the area better known in Army parlance as Sub-Sector North. • It has the world’s highest airstrip, originally built during the 1962


36.Ans a

The Coral Triangle, the world’s epicentre of marine biodiversity, which encompasses the seas of 6 countries in the Asia-Pacific region: Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Solomon Islands, and Timor Leste. 


37.Ans a

Gairsain becomes Uttarakhand’s summer capital: Gairsain in Chamoli district was formally declared as the summer capital of Uttarakhand. • It would be developed as an ideal seat of the administration. • The Legislative Assembly of the state is located at Dehradun, the winter capital city.


38.Ans b

About CAT: The Central Administrative Tribunal was established by an Act of Parliament namely Administrative Tribunals Act, 1985 as sequel to the 42nd amendment of the Constitution of India inserting Article 323 A. Functions: The tribunal adjudicates disputes and complaints with respect to Recruitment and Conditions of Service of the persons appointed to the Public Services and Posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or any State or of any other Local Authorities within the territory of India or under the control of the Government of India. Composition: The Tribunal is headed by the Chairman and 65 Members, 33 from Judicial (including Chairman) and 33 from the Administrative stream. The Chairman is normally a retired Chief Justice of a High Court. Why in News? 18th Bench of Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) for the Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh inaugurated recently.


39.Ans a

Spandan Campaign: Chhattisgarh government has launched the Spandan Campaign to contain incidents of suicide and fratricide involving police personnel. • Under the campaign, the superintendents of police associated with the Chhattisgarh Government will start a parade in their districts every Friday. After the event, the grievances of the personnel are to be addressed. Also, the campaign has made medical treatment and counselling of depressed officers mandatory. 


40.Ans a

Jaya Jaitly task force: Constituted by Women and Child Development Ministry. To examine issues related to age of motherhood, lowering Maternal Mortality Rate and improvement of nutritional levels. • Headed by Jaya Jaitly and it will submit its report by 31st July of next month. • The mandate of the task force involves examining the correlation of age of marriage and motherhood with health, medical well-being and nutritional status of mother and neonate/infant/child, during pregnancy, birth and thereafter. World Food Safety 



Healthy and Energy Efficient Buildings Initiative: • Launched by Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), in partnership with the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) MAITREE program. • This initiative will address the challenges of retrofitting existing buildings and air conditioning systems so that they are both healthy and energy efficient. The Market Integration and Transformation Program for Energy Efficiency (MAITREE), under which this initiative has been launched, is a part of the US-India bilateral Partnership between the Ministry of Power and USAID and is aimed at accelerating the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency as a standard practice within buildings, and specifically focuses on cooling. 


42.Ans b

Petrapole: It is the Indian side of Petrapole-Benapole border checkpoint between India and Benapole of Bangladesh, on the Bangladesh-India border, near Bongaon in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. • Petrapole border is the only land port in south Bengal. It is also the largest land customs station in Asia. • The landport alone accounts for nearly 60 per cent of the bilateral trade between India and Bangladesh. 


43.Ans b : To commemorate the Stockholm conference


44. Ans a

SaalBhar60: A new campaign on air pollution unveiled by Haridwar-based Ridhima Pandey. It demands that the government put in place measures to ensure that the PM 2.5 levels in cities is 60 micrograms per cubic metre, which is the safe limit for 24 hours as prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). 




45.Amery Ice Shelf (AIS):

The AIS is one of the largest glacier drainage

basins in the world, located on the east coast of

Antarctica, at about 70ºS Latitude, 70ºE


It is located at the head of Prydz Bay between

the Lars Christensen Coast and Ingrid

Christensen Coast.

It is part of Mac. Robertson Land.

Why in News?

The National Centre for Polar and Ocean

Research (NCPOR) predicts that there would be

a 24% increase in the expansion of Ameri Ice

Shelf (AIS) boundaries by 2021 and another 24%

expansion by 2026 from its 2016 positions.

Scientists feel that this study would help understand the ongoing changes in the ocean and atmospheric forces



46.Ans c

Changpa community: 

Why in News? 

The Chinese Army’s intrusion in Chumur and Demchok since January has left Ladakh’s nomadic herding Changpa community cut off from large parts of summer pastures. This has also resulted in a sharp rise in deaths of young Pashmina goats this year in the Korzok-Chumur belt of Changthang plateau in Ladakh. About Changthangi or Pashmina goat: 1. It is a special breed of goat indigenous to the high-altitude regions of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir. 2. They are raised for ultra-fine cashmere wool, known as Pashmina once woven. 3. These goats are generally domesticated and reared by nomadic communities called the Changpa in the Changthang region of Greater Ladakh. 4. The Changthangi goats have revitalized the economy of Changthang, Leh and Ladakh region.


47.Ans b

Global Economic Prospects: • It is the World Bank’s semi-annual flagship publication on the state of the world economy. • It examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing economies. • It is issued twice a year, in January and June. The January edition includes in-depth analyses of topical policy challenges while the June edition contains shorter analytical pieces.


48.Ans d


49.Ans c

Ultra Swachh: It is a disinfection unit to disinfect a wide range of materials, including Personal Protective Equipment (PPEs), electronics items, fabrics, etc. Developed by DRDO. The system uses an advanced oxidative process comprising of multiple barrier disruption approach using Ozonated Space Technology for disinfection.


50.Ans b

CHAMPIONS: Technology Platform to empower MSMEs: PM launched the technology platform CHAMPIONS which stands for Creation and Harmonious Application of Modern Processes for Increasing the Output and National Strength. Objectives: Grievance Redressal, To help them capture new opportunities and To identify and encourage the sparks. The platform also aims to identify the sparks, i.e., the bright MSMEs who can withstand at present and become national and international champions.


51.Ans C

Missile Park ‘Agneeprastha’ to be set up at INS Kalinga: It aims to capture glimpses of missile history of INS Kalinga from its establishment in 1981 till date. • It will be dedicated to all the officers, sailors and support staff of INS Kalinga. • It will also commemorate the award of the prestigious Unit Citation to INS Kalinga for the year 2018-19. • P-70 ‘Ametist’, an underwater launched anti-ship missile from the arsenal of the old ‘Chakra’ (Charlie-1 submarine) which was in service with Indian Navy during 1988-91 is the main attraction point in the Park. • INS Kalinga is a premier Naval Establishment located on the Visakhapatnam- Bheemunipatnam beach road under the Eastern Naval Command.


52.Ans c

Border Adjustment tax Context: A NITI Aayog member has favoured imposing a border adjustment tax (BAT) on imports to provide a level-playing field to domestic industries. This suggestion comes in the backdrop of the USA-China trade tensions (trade war) which are expected to rise even further post-Covid-19. What is BAT? BAT is a duty that is proposed to be imposed on imported goods in addition to the customs levy that gets charged at the port of entry. BAT is a fiscal measure that imposes a charge on goods or services in accordance with the destination principle of taxation. Generally, BAT seeks to promote “equal conditions of competition” for foreign and domestic companies supplying products or services within a taxing jurisdiction. Need for: The Indian industry has been complaining to the government about domestic taxes like electricity duty, duties on fuel, clean energy cess, mandi tax, royalties, biodiversity fees that get charged on domestically produced goods as these duties get embedded into the product. But many imported goods do not get loaded with such levies in their respective country of origin and this gives such products price advantage in the Indian market.


53.Ans a

Global report on the illegal wildlife trade Context: First global report on the illegal wildlife trade was recently released by FATF. It is called the “Money Laundering and the Illegal Wildlife Trade” report. Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has described illegal wildlife trade as a “global threat”, which also has links with other organised crimes like modern slavery, drug trafficking and arms trade. Key findings: 1. The illegal trade is estimated to generate revenues of up to $23 billion a year. 2. Criminals are frequently misusing the legitimate wildlife trade, as well as other import-export type businesses, as a front to move and hide illegal proceeds from wildlife crimes. 3. They also rely regularly on corruption, complex fraud and tax evasion. 4. There is a growing role of online marketplaces and mobile and social media-based payments to facilitate movement of proceeds warranting a coordinated response from government bodies, the private sector and the civil society. 5. According to the 2016 UN World Wildlife Crime report, criminals are illegally trading products derived from over 7,000 species of wild animals and plants across the world

54.Ans a

About NPCI: NPCI is an umbrella organisation for operating retail payments and settlement systems in India. It is an initiative of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Indian Banks’ Association (IBA) under the provisions of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007, for creating a robust Payment and Settlement Infrastructure in India. It has been incorporated as a not for profit company.


55.Ans d

Payment systems under NPCI

NFS: National Financial Switch (NFS) ATM network with 37 member banks and connecting 50,000 ATMs was taken to NPCI’s authority from the Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT) on 14 December 2009. After taking over, NFS ATM network has grown many folds. IMPS: Immediate Payment Service (IMPS). AePS: Aadhaar-enabled Payment Service (AePS). CTS: Cheque Truncation System (CTS) facilitates extended cut-off time to accept customer cheques by banks and reduces timelines for clearing. RuPay: RuPay is a new card payment system launched to satisfy RBI’s vision to offer a domestic, open-loop, and the multilateral system. NACH: National Automated Clearing House (NACH) is a web-based solution that facilitates interbank, high volume electronic transactions that are repetitive in nature. APBS: Aadhaar Payment Bridge (APB) System is used by the government and government agencies to make direct benefit transfers with respect to various Central and state-sponsored schemes. *99#: is a USSD-based mobile banking service of NPCI launched in November 2012. UPI: Unified Payments Interface (UPI) is a system that makes multiple bank accounts to be accessed from a single mobile application. Bharat BillPay: is a system conceptualised by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and driven by NPCI. NETC: National Electronic Toll Collection (NETC) is a nation-wide programme designed to meet the electronic tolling requirements in India. BHIM: Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) was launched to make payments simpler and easier. Instant bankto-bank payments can be made using a mobile number or virtual payment address (UPI ID). BharatQR: Basically, a QR code is a series of black squares arranged in a square grid that can be read by a camera.


56.Ans c

Legitimate concern: on law and order in Nagaland Context: With the legitimacy of the Constitutionally-elected state government’s being “challenged on a day-to-day basis by the armed gangs who question the sovereignty and integrity of the nation”, Nagaland Governor has told the chief minister that he “could no longer abstain from constitutional obligations in the state under Article 371A (1) (b) of the Constitution”. What is Article 371A(1)(b) all about? It applies exclusively to Nagaland and bestows upon the governor “special responsibility with respect to law and order”. According to the provision, the governor, for all practical purposes, has the final say on all matters related to the state’s law and order and on what constitutes law and order.


57.Ans c

Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act Context: The police have filed an FIR against Devangana Kalita, who is associated with the ‘Pinjra Tod’ group, under the stringent Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act in connection with a case related to communal violence in north-east Delhi in February. 


About Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act: 

Passed in 1967, the law aims at effective prevention of unlawful activities associations in India. The Act assigns absolute power to the central government, by way of which if the Centre deems an activity as unlawful then it may, by way of an Official Gazette, declare it so. It has death penalty and life imprisonment as highest punishments. Under UAPA, both Indian and foreign nationals can be charged. It will be applicable to the offenders in the same manner, even if crime is committed on a foreign land, outside India. Under the UAPA, the investigating agency can file a charge sheet in maximum 180 days after the arrests and the duration can be extended further after intimating the court. 


58.Ans c

What is Styrene? Styrene — an organic compound used in the production of polymers, plastics and resins — is manufactured in petrochemical refineries. It is a poisonous, inflammable gas. It is also known as PVC gas (polyvinyl chloride), as it is used in the production of PVC. Styrene is the 20th most-used chemical in the world, according to the World Health Organization.


59.Ans c

Gharial: • The Gharial or fish eating crocodile is native to the Indian subcontinent. • It is listed as a Critically Endangered by IUCN. • Small released populations are present and increasing in the rivers of the National Chambal Sanctuary, Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Son River Sanctuary and the rainforest biome of Mahanadi in Satkosia Gorge Sanctuary, Orissa.


60.Ans c

About UNCCD: Established in 1994. It is the sole legally binding international agreement linking environment and development to sustainable land management. • It is the only convention stemming from a direct recommendation of the Rio Conference’s Agenda 21. • To help publicise the Convention, 2006 was declared “International Year of Deserts and Desertification”.


61.Ans C

About Nagar Van scheme: • The scheme emphasises on urban forestry. • Under the scheme, around 200 urban forests are to be developed all over the country in the next five years. • The scheme will also provide an opportunity to the states to manage urban ecosystems


62.Ans d

Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF) launched Context: Approved by Cabinet in pursuance of recently announced Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan stimulus package. Overview: • Size of the fund is Rs. 15000 crore. • This Fund will incentivise infrastructure investments in dairy, meat processing and animal feed plants. Eligibility, funding and implementation: • Who is eligible? Farmer Producer Organizations (FPOs), MSMEs, Section 8 Companies, Private Companies and individual entrepreneur with only 10% margin money contribution by them. • Rest of the Funds: The balance 90% would be the loan component to be made available to them by scheduled banks. • GOI will provide 3% interest subvention to eligible beneficiaries. • There will be 2 years moratorium period for repayment of the loan with 6 years repayment period thereafter. 


63.Ans c

About MSP: What is it? In theory, an MSP is the minimum price set by the Government at which farmers can expect to sell their produce for the season. When market prices fall below the announced MSPs, procurement agencies step in to procure the crop and ‘support’ the prices. 

Who announces? 

The Cabinet Committee of Economic Affairs announces MSP for various crops at the beginning of each sowing season based on the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP). The CACP takes into account demand and supply, the cost of production and price trends in the market among other things when fixing MSPs.


64.Ans d

Mixed intercropping – two or more crops are planted in a mix without a distinct row arrangement. 2. Row intercropping – two or more crops are planted in distinct rows. 3. Relay intercropping – two or more crops are grown at the same time as part of the life cycle of each i.e. a second crop is sown after the first crop has been well established but before it reaches its harvesting stage. 4. Strip intercropping – growing two or more crops at the same time in separate strips wide enough apart for independent cultivation.


65.Ans c

Important fact for Prelims: The level of foreign exchange reserves has steadily increased by 8,400 per cent from $5.8 billion as of March 1991 to the current level. What are forex reserves? Forex reserves are external assets in the form of gold, SDRs (special drawing rights of the IMF) and foreign currency assets (capital inflows to the capital markets, FDI and external commercial borrowings) accumulated by India and controlled by the Reserve Bank of India.



Labour Force Participation Rate: It is the percentage of people in the labour force (those who are working or seeking or available for work) in the population. Worker Population Ratio is the percentage of employed people. Unemployment rate shows the percentage of people unemployed among the labour force. Unemployed: A person who is unable to get work for even an hour in the last seven days despite seeking employment is considered unemployed.



About FATF: It is an inter- governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7. Its Secretariat is located at the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) headquarters in Paris


68.Ans: b

About IAEA: Set up as the world’s “Atoms for Peace” organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. Reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council. Headquarters in Vienna, Austria.


69.Ans b

1. H-1B: Person is Specialty Occupation: To work in a specialty occupation. Requires a higher education degree of its equivalent. 2. L1 visas allows companies to transfer highly skilled workers to US for a period of up to seven years. 3. H-2B visas allow food and agricultural workers to seek employment in the US. 4. J-1 Visas: It is for students on work-study summer programmes.



What is GAFA tax? GAFA tax—named after Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon—is a proposed digital tax to be levied on large technology and internet companies. France has decided to introduce the tax (3% tax on revenues from digital activities). 


71.Ans b

TULIP – Urban Learning Internship Program Context: TULIP – Urban Learning Internship Program for providing opportunities to fresh Graduates in all ULBs & Smart Cities launched. TULIP has been conceived pursuant to the Budget 2020-21 announcement by the Finance Minister Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman under the theme ‘Aspirational India’.


72.Ans c

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kalaazar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality.


73.Anc d

2020 Global Education Monitoring (GEM) Report released by UNESCO. In line with its mandate, the 2020 GEM Report assesses progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 4 (SDG 4) on education and its ten targets, as well as other related education targets in the SDG agenda


74.Ans a

Cabinet has approved 2% Interest Subvention approved on prompt repayment of Shishu Loans under Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana for a period of 12 months. • The estimated cost of the Scheme would be approximately Rs. 1,542 crore which would be provided by the Government of India. • This Scheme is for implementation of one of the measures relating to MSMEs, announced under the Atma Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.


75.Ans c

What is AGR? Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) is the usage and licensing fee that telecom operators are charged by the Department of Telecommunications (DoT). It is divided into spectrum usage charges and licensing fees, pegged between 3-5 percent and 8 percent respectively.


76.Ans c

What is Tablighi Jamaat? 

Founded by a Deobandi Isamic scholar at Mewat, Uttar Pradesh, in 1926, the Tablighi Jamaat (Society of Preachers) focusses on ‘purifying’ the Muslim faith. It has presence in 150 countries.


77.Ans d

What is Essential Commodities Act? Enacted in 1955. Used by the Government to regulate the production, supply and distribution of a whole host of commodities it declares ‘essential’ in order to make them available to consumers at fair prices. The list of items under the Act include drugs, fertilisers, petroleum and petroleum products. The Centre can include new commodities as and when the need arises, and take them off the list once the situation improves. Under the Act, the government can also fix the maximum retail price (MRP) of any packaged product that it declares an “essential commodity”.


78.Ans c

What is MFP? Section 2(i) of the Forest Rights Act defines a Minor Forest Produce (MFP) as all non-timber forest produce of plant origin and includes bamboo, brushwood, stumps, canes, cocoon, honey, waxes, Lac, tendu/kendu leaves, medicinal plants etc. The definition of “minor forest produce” includes bamboo and cane, thereby changing the categorization of bamboo and cane as “trees” under the Indian Forest Act 1927


79.Ans b

Composition: As per the provisions contained in the Finance Commission [Miscellaneous Provisions] Act, 1951 and The Finance Commission (Salaries & Allowances) Rules, 1951, the Chairman of the Commission is selected from among persons who have had experience in public affairs, and the four other members are selected from among persons who: • are, or have been, or are qualified to be appointed as Judges of a High Court; or • have special knowledge of the finances and accounts of Government; or • have had wide experience in financial matters and in administration; or • have special knowledge of economics. 


80.Ans c

The Krishna: It is an east-flowing river. Originates at Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra and merges with the Bay of Bengal, flowing through Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Tributaries: Tungabhadra, Mallaprabha, Koyna, Bhima, Ghataprabha, Yerla, Warna, Dindi, Musi and Dudhganga


81.Ans b

Godavari River: Rises from Trimbakeshwar near Nasik in Maharashtra and flows for a length of about 1465 km before outfalling into the Bay of Bengal. Basin: The Godavari basin extends over states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in addition to smaller parts in Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka and Union territory of Puducherry. Tributaries: Pravara, Purna, Manjra, Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, Pranhita (combined flow of Wainganga, Penganga, Wardha), Indravati, Maner and the Sabri.


82.Ans d

What is PM CARES fund? The PM CARES Fund was created on 28 March 2020, “with the primary objective of dealing with any kind of emergency or distress situation, like posed by the COVID-19 pandemic”. It is a “public charitable trust”. Who administers the fund? Prime Minister is the ex-officio Chairman of the PM CARES Fund and Minister of Defence, Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Finance, Government of India are ex-officio Trustees of the Fund.


83.Ans b

Reservation is not a fundamental right says Supreme Court What’s the Context? The Supreme Court has said that reservation of seats to certain communities was not a Fundamental Right. What’s the issue? The Court said this while refusing to act on a petition filed by all political parties from Tamil Nadu who sought 50% OBC reservation in the all-India NEET seats surrendered by states. All political parties from Tamil Nadu filed a writ petition under Article 32 of the Constitution. They accused the Centre of violating the “right of the people of Tamil Nadu to have a fair education” by not implementing the 50% quota for Backward Classes and Most Backward Classes for the All India Quota seats in medical and dental science courses. 


84.Ans b

Decreased borrowing of the government will result in to crowding out effect


85. Ans a:Deficit financing through printing currency

86. Ans c All are correct 

87.Ans b

88.Ans d All are correct.

 crowding in effect is when there are sufficient money for private sector borrowing in the country. it is opposite of the crowding out effect.

89. Ans c

90.Ans b

91.Ans d

92.Ans c

93.Ans b:Nidhi company is regulated by Ministry of Corporate Affairs

94. Ans d

95.Ans b

96.Ans a

Tax buoyancy is an indicator to measure efficiency and responsiveness of revenue mobilization in response to growth in the Gross domestic product or National income.


A tax is said to be buoyant if the tax revenues increase more than proportionately in response to a rise in national income or output.


97.Ans c

98.Ans c

99.Ans a Primary cooperative societies are not included under the insurance  but cooperative banks are included under this insurance.

100.Ans b



Share this content of IAS DARBAR with Others